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Full text of "History Of Ancient India"

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{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\fswiss\cpg0\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f2\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f3\fswiss\cpg1252\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f4\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f5\fswiss\cpg1251\fcharset204 Arial;}{\f6\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f7\fswiss\cpg1250\fcharset238 Arial;}{\f8\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f9\fswiss\cpg1257\fcharset186 Arial;}{\f10\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f11\fswiss\cpg1254\fcharset162 Arial;}{\f12\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f13\fswiss\cpg1253\fcharset161 Arial;}{\f14\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}{\f15\fswiss\cpg1255\fcharset177 Arial;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f2\fs20 Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl2864\margr3724\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn2864\margrsxn3724\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\tx1433 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex99\expndtw-18\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 88{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\expndtw3 DEMOCRATIC PROCEDURE}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li22\fi0\ri72\sb230\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-2\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 like referring the matter to a committee, with a view to \expndtw0 arriving at a unanimous decision. If no unanimity was \expndtw-7 possible, votes \i (chanda) \i0 were taken. Voting was by tickets \i\expndtw-4 (saldkd), \i0 generally slips of wood, of various colours to \expndtw2 indicate different views. The officer collecting votes \expndtw-10 was styled \i Saldkdgdhdpaka, \i0 who was expected to show no \expndtw-3 kind of prejudice, malice, or fear. Voting was perfectly \expndtw-5 free and unfettered, and the majority \sub (\nosupersub view \i (ye-bhujya-\expndtw-7 siham\} \i0 prevailed. A question, once decided, was not to be \expndtw-3 re-opened. Records of proceedings also appear to have \expndtw0 been kept by clerks. The procedure was thus truly \expndtw-1 democratic, anticipating in many respects the working \expndtw-2 of modern popular assemblies.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri65\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-3\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 The clan subsisted on the produce of the rice-fields, \expndtw7 and the cattle grazed in the village common or the \expndtw-3 forests.   The   villages   were   grouped   together,   and \expndtw2 persons following particular crafts generally lived at \expndtw-2 one place.   For instance,  potters,   smiths,   carpenters \expndtw-1 and even those following priestly avocations had their \expndtw3 own settlements.   On the whole, the  Sakyas were a \expndtw-3 peaceful community, and cases of theft or other crimes \expndtw2 were rare. _ Perhaps they also had, like the Koliyas, regular police officers, who were distinguished by a \expndtw0 special headgear, and who were notorious for "extor\-\expndtw-2 tion and violence."   When caught, the offenders were \expndtw0 produced, before a court of justice and carefully tried.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li180\fi115\ri40\sb65\sa0\sl-223\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw3\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 J^V\super 1\nosupersub ^\super 8\nosupersub ' \super at\nosupersub  ^ \super rate\nosupersub > \super had\nosupersub > \super as\nosupersub  would appear from the \i\expndtw-4 fntokriba \i0 or Buddhaghosa's commentary on the \i Mahd-\expndtw-3 parmbbana-Sutta, \i0 a very complicated judicial system; and punishments were awarded according to the Book \expndtw1 ot Fiecedents (P^\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'ab\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0  \i Potlhaka\\ \i0 when the accused \expndtw10 was^umiortnly adjudged guilty by a succession}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li2729\fi252\ri29\sb43\sa0\sl-234\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-6\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 ^inwcaya Mahdmdias\\ \i0 Law-\expndtw-3 of Law \i (S i4tra-dharas\\ \i0 Coun-}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri29\sb4\sa0\sl-234\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 the General \i (Sendt>ati\\ \i0 the}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li1843\fi0\ri0\sb25\sa0\sl-216\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-5\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 Consul (R\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'ab\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0 >-)    Each of \expndtw4 course, let off the person charged, if}\par }